Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation(1944)

发布于 2022-03-03  398 次阅读


Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The political and Economic Origins of Our Time(1944)

• TGT argues that the emergence of marketbased societies in modern Europe was not inevitable but historically contingent.(偶然的)
• Substantivism: a cultural approach to economics, which emphasized the way economies are embedded in society and culture.

what is substantivism?

(Substantivism is a position, first proposed by Karl Polanyi in his work The Great Transformation, which argues that the term 'economics' has two meanings. The formal meaning, used by today's neoclassical economists, refers to economics as the logic of rational action and decision-making, as rational choice between the alternative uses of limited (scarce) means, as 'economising,' 'maximizing,' or 'optimizing.
The second, substantive meaning presupposes neither rational decision-making nor conditions of scarcity. It refers to how humans make a living interacting within their social and natural environments. A society's livelihood strategy is seen as an adaptation to its environment and material conditions, a process which may or may not involve utility maximisation. The substantive meaning of 'economics' is seen in the broader sense of 'provisioning.' Economics is the way society meets material needs.)

• Polanyi criticized the Austrian School of economists.
• Polanyi married a communist revolutionary.
• The rivalries with Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek in 1920s and 1930s when Polanyi was editing Der Osterreichische Volkswirt 《奥地利经济学人》周刊
• 人类历史上从未有过真正自由的自律市场,也不应该刻意追求这种市场。
• TGT直到冷战结束后才得到应有的重视

Neo-liberalism
• 政府干预是所有问题的根源
• 关键问题是在改革过程中寻找正确的价格
• 借助私有化和自由化将政府从经济活动中抽离出来
Criticism:
a. 将经济发展等同于实现资本积累和提升资源分配效率
b. 误解了经济变革的本质,它所影响的乃是社会整体,而不仅限于经济层面

• “国王和他的枢密院、内阁大臣以及主教们都在为保护公共福利,以及实际上是社会的人与自然的本质主旨而与这些暴行作斗争。”
• 社会变迁的速度是否适当,主要取决于被剥夺者能否在其人性与生计、物质与道德等本质方面不遭受致命损伤的情况下使自己适应于变化了的条件;取决于他们能否在与这种变迁间接联系的机会领域找到新的工作,能否使那些因经济变迁而失业的人们获得维持生计的新资源。
Note: [英]卡尔·波兰尼著,冯钢、刘阳译:《大转型:我们时代的政治与
经济起源》,杭州:浙江人民出版社,2007年4月,第31,33—34页。

“双向运动”(Double Movement)
运动一:自由放任的动向以扩张市场
运动二:反向而生的保护主义以防止市场脱嵌
• 一旦变革的速度超出个体的承受极限或者新生力量的吸纳能力,新旧势力之间的极端对立便无法避免,市场的疯狂扩张长期伴随着试图驾驭或者抑制这种扩张的反方向运动,这一“双向运动”在波兰尼看来是现代社会的基本特征。