metropolitan: 大都市的 metropolis大都市
first and foremost
last but not least
In this culture, a man identifies himself first and foremost as a citizen of a particular polis or city, and in doing so, he signals which institutions and which body of people hold his allegiance.
a red powder or cream used as a cosmetic for colouring the cheeks or lips.
our world is more and more shaped by rapid expansion of bureaucratic politics, bombardment of overwhelming knowledge and information.
the fate of the billions of the people in the world have fallen into the hands of oligarchs, political brokers and commercial monstrosities, who account for only one percent of the world's population as a whole.
account for: 对……做出解释、占比例
How do you account for the fact that unemployment is still rising?
The social services account for a substantial part of public spending.
adrift of: 比赛中未达到目标的
facing the technology empire, people are easily bewildered, like a boat adrifting in a vast sea, knowing not whither to go.
pop up:突然出现 pop:砰
While anxiety and fear always loom over the human beings, "beautiful dreams"and opportunities keep popping up, tempting people to constantly seek illusory freedom and imaginary liberation.
Liquid life is a reflection of an objective reality that comes from enormous historical changes. It is a specific life experience that people must undergo on" absolutely modern"terms. At the same time, it is a way for people to savor and be conscious of the intricacies between time and space, self and others, as well as between possibilities and challenges.
Globalization and modernization has become an irreversible trend, with its crisscrossing currents and countercurrents of separation and cooperation, confrontation and reconciliation, confusion and trauma. From west to east, from modern to ontemporary times, it spreads in a familial open concept fashion and in the process becomes the focal point of social and individual conflicts and confrontations on many levels.
Years ago, in many of his books such as Liquid Life and Globalization: The Human Consequences, Zygmunt Bauman made thorough and meticulous observations on and analysis of the present state of the liquid life, voicing his concerns over the future of human beings, which resonated among intellectuals as well as led to debates. People are sympathetic towards his idealistic concepts of the genuine global obligations and the importance of giving up over owning but question the solutions he has prescribed such as unity, law, regulations, order, and self-education, for they sound anemic and powerless, lacking concrete means of putting them to patn.
This article attempts to explore, against a Chinese background, crisis of humanity behind a seemingly prosperous society, gap between ideology and reality, big divide between intellectual thoughts and ideas and those of common folks, and conflicts between rule of law and rule by ethics. From the perspective of an intellectual, the article will try to answer the questions on the direction and consequences of the liquid life The following questions will also be raised: e.g. where will the future human life be？ What kind of breakthroughs can we anticipate in terms of cognitive methodology？ What contributions will scholars of the humanities be able to make？
It was up to the US to take the initiative in repairing relations.
bilateral：双边的 unilateral：单边的 multilateral：多边的
Kinship is unilateral while friendship and love are bilateral.
preserve the status quo: 维持现状
authoritarian regimes may be either autocratic in nature and may be based upon the rule of a part of a party or the military.
Political legitimacy based upon appeals to emotion and identification of the regime as a necessary evil to combat "easily recognizable societal problems, such as underdevelopment or insurgency".
Minimally defined, an authoritarian government lacks free and competitive direct elections to legislatures, free and competitive direct or indirect elections for executives, or both. Broadly defined, authoritarian states include countries that lack the civil liberties such as freedom of religion, or countries in which the government and the opposition do not alternate in power at least once following free elections.
Each state appoints electors according to its legislature, equal in number to its congressional delegation (senators and representatives).
Of the current 538 electors, an absolute majority of 270 or more electoral votes is required to elect the president and vice president. If no candidate achieves an absolute majority there, a contingent election is held by the United States House of Representatives to elect the president, and by the United States Senate to elect the vice president.
In United States politics, the "iron triangle" comprises the policy-making relationship among the congressional committees, the bureaucracy, and interest groups.
political arena: 政治舞台
The Supremacy Clause of the Constitution of the United States (Article VI, Clause 2), establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the "supreme Law of the Land", and thus take priority over any conflicting state laws.
What is better? The national government has more power over the state governments or the other way around?
or the other way around:还是反过来？
Their political dogma has blinded them to the real needs of the country.
The bank had no mandate to honour the cheque. 兑现支票
The Belgians took over Rwanda under a League of Nations mandate.比利时人接管卢旺达